Saturday, July 30, 2016

071. Home Of Noted Economists The Gulatis Collapsed By Trivandrum Land Mafia. Investigative Article By P S Remesh Chandran


Home Of Noted Economists The Gulatis Collapsed By Trivandrum Land Mafia. Investigative Article. 

P S Remesh Chandran

Editor, Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum

Article Title Image By Santhosh KB. Graphics: Adobe SP. 

First published on: 25th Jul 2016

Short URL Posted in Wikinut>Writing>Columns & Opinions 

Philistines attacking civilized people have been going on for centuries. Scorching houses was the ancient way. Excavating the adjacent land and letting the next rain bring down the house is the modern way. Kerala showed ingratitude and suffered international shame when government officials let go of two business houses in Trivandrum which caused the collapse of the home of Dr. Iqbal Singh Gulati and Mrs. Leela Gulati, the famous economists and writers.


Presentation trains to India and Pakistan, dripping blood all the way.

People who have read the British Colonial History and Asian History and people who are above 62 years of age will remember the horror known as India-Pakistan Partition. The British India was divided into not two but four actually- India, Pakistan, Ceylon and Burma. Punjab and Bengal were the two states divided into two and suffered most in this partition, which was a political and communal compromise between the Muslim and Hindu elements in the Indian National Congress on one side and the departing British on the other, such that there will be two nations to rule, two presidents and two prime ministers in positions and two cabinets and two parliaments installed, creating posts for twice the number of position-seekers, making everyone happy, except people. Trains from Karachi and Lahore thundered to India carrying wagonloads of slain human bodies, dripping blood all the way, bearing the side-writing in large letters, ‘Muhammadali Jinnah’s Presentation to Independent India’, and the same kind of trains were despatched to Pakistan also from Calcutta and Amritsar.

The largest migration in human history, to sustain two presidents, two prime ministers, two parliaments and two armies.

01. Article Title Image By Santhosh KB. Graphics: Adobe SP.

Hindus stranded in Pakistan had no way of contacting families in India and Muslims halted in India lost contacts with relatives in Pakistan. Remember that India and Pakistan and their people were one country, one nation, one people and one entity, speaking the same language of Hindi, sharing the same culture, literature, music and art. But for no fault of theirs, these people suddenly found themselves divided into two and made hostile to each other, to keep two nations, two presidents, two prime ministers, two cabinets, two parliaments, and two armies. Communal riots and killing became day-to-day affairs of mobs in many provinces and so began the flood of people to their native lands, to where their husbands, wives, mothers, fathers and children lived, soon after these two nations were born in August 1947. Where independence was occasion for rejoicing for people in many states, independence meant bloodbath, horror, terror, nightmare and the end of life to people in the affected states. It is said that there was not one single family in Punjab that has not lost a member to the partition and its aftermaths. It is also true that people in the non-affected states did not, and still do not, understand what partition was like. After 69 years of partition, exchange of stranded people are still going on between these two nations.

A village near Afghanistan where Hindus and Sikhs lived in constant fear of Pathans abducting women and young boys.

02. Special Refugee Train during Partition of India. 

In the small British cantonment town of Bannu in the North Western Frontier Province very close to Khyber Pass near Afghanistan, the Hindus and Sikhs inside high mud walls lived in constant fear of the surrounding Pathan Muslims abducting their women and young boys, even while the males inside the walls interacting socially and economically friendly with most of the surrounding Pathans. Pathans, not as bad and fierce as legends held them, had allowed Hindus to live among them since the time of Maharaja Ranjith Singh. Anyway, Hindu and Sikh women going out went only with their faces covered and only in covered horse-drawn carriages, and dealt only cautiously with them Pathans. The Hindus and Sikhs were a close community, often the grandfather in a family being Hindu, sons Hindus or Sikhs, and grandchildren almost always Sikhs, all living under the same roof. Sikhism, we know, germinated as negation to the bad elements in Hinduism, as Buddhism and Jainism also were. The apparent communal harmony of this small town, as well as that in thousands of others villages in the undivided India, was shattered by Muhammadali Jinnah’s announcement of his plans for separation from India and formation of a new nation of his, to the dismay of most Muslim and Hindu leaders in the Indian National Congress. After the Second World War, when the independence of India was imminent, people thought the British would engineer a way out of this partition but they did nothing of the kind to alleviate the fear of a separation. As part of their Divide-And-Continue-To-Rule strategy, they found excuses and justifications to redraw the frontiers of India and create one Muslim nation and another Hindu-majority nation, which they hoped would fight with tooth and nail for another One hundred years, before uniting once again like those other countries divided after the Second World War.

‘Carts, cattle, donkeys, dogs, men, women, boys, girls, babies, bicycles, and baggage - all in constant move under pall of dust.’ 

03. Charred bodies and vultures after Calcutta riots.

There lived in Bannu a family of Sikh flower merchants and rich land owners, really of Hindu origins who though wealthy, had to leave in haste, leaving all their property behind like all other migrants. People left Bannu by foot and in bullock carts. ‘Carts, cattle, donkeys, dogs, men, women, boys, girls, babies, bicycles, and baggage - all in constant move under pall of dust’ was how the miserable life of millions in those days was described. Many lost their lives on the way, from thirst, hunger, diseases and attacks by marauding brigands. The flower merchants’ family also lost a few family members in their flight for life, the drama of which, this author hopes, would someday be told by Mrs. Leela Gulati as reported to her by relatives who actually took part in this great drama of human misery which shook the world. The unendurable hardships of this indescribable journey was what perhaps made one of the boys in that caravan who survived this ordeal and who was later to become Dr. Iqbal Singh Gulati ‘in a sense a philosopher and detached from worldly possessions.’


From a tarpaulin-covered dilapidated shed to a Doctorate in Economics.

04. Bannu Hindus and Sikhs migrate to India.

The family of Dr. I S Gulati had traumatic experiences during the partition of India and Pakistan. They migrated to India by train and reunited in refugee camps in Delhi. Some children were flown by plane, disguised as Muslims. He himself being employed in the Military Accounts Department, must have got official conveyance to Delhi. They were living under a tarpaulin attached to a dilapidated portion of the Old Fort in Delhi from where I S Gulati post-graduated in Economics from Punjab University. He was recruited to the Planning Commission of India in 1950 by Dr. K N Raj to help as research assistant in Budgetary Classification of Centre-State Finances in which days Economic Planning in India was still in infancy. Gulati knew extremely well to identify and classify ‘transfer items, expenditure items and unilateral transfer items’ and was sent abroad to obtain a PhD in Economics from the London School of Economics in 1955. His doctoral thesis on Taxation of Capital was noted by many and when Mr. Nicholas Kaldor of the London School of Economics was approached by the Government of India for advice on tax reforms, he specifically asked for Dr. Gulati on his staff at the Indian Statistical Institute. In 1956 he joined the Maharaja Sayaji Rao University of Baroda, Gujarat as Reader, in 1957- the year of the first elected communist government in Kerala and the world- found his wife in the Economics student Leela Gulati, and continued as Professor there till 1968. 

The most noted economic research papers published from Kerala were theirs.

05. Bannu in Pakistan today 65 years later.

The first Chief Minister of Kerala and a political author, Mr. E M Sankaran Nampoothirippadu in 1957 requested Dr. K N Raj expert advice for preparing the first people’s budget of Kerala and Dr. Gulati was sent as Economic Advisor, accompanied by his scholarly wife. Soon they both identified themselves with the intelligent and hospitable people of Kerala and the husband and wife began their unique contributions to Kerala’s economic redefining. In 1972, requested by the next Communist Chief Minister and prolific writer Mr. Chelat Achyutha Menon, they started building from scratch that prestigious institution of Kerala, the Centre for Development Studies, which this couple made into one of the most famous research institutions in India. Dr. Iqbal Singh Gulati worked as Professor and Smt. Leela Gulati as Fellow at the Centre for Development Studies. Theirs were the most noted economic papers ever published from Kerala and were key components in the evolvement of Kerala’s strategies in deploying the economic boom provided by the Gulf Malayalees, decentralization of powers from Centre-to-state and State-to-local bodies, public finance, and the popular taxation rules of Kerala- in short, they were responsible for the rise of the present secure economic structure of Kerala. They even learned Malayalam and became practically Malayalis too.

Leading the biggest people’s movement in Kerala for development and liberation.

06. Dr. Iqbal Singh Gulati in garden.

In 1987, the Left Democratic Government under Mr. Erambala Krishnan Nayanar sought the services of Dr. I S Gulati as Vice Chairman of the State Planning Board and that was when, through his intense advocacy, the District Panchayat Councils were recognized in principle and allotted 200 Crores Rupees each for the first time under the Budget Plan of the Government of India. In 1995, he travelled throughout the state, leading the biggest people’s movement in Kerala for local development, educating people’s representatives and people on the importance of delegating the Centre’s and the States’ financial powers to people, and warning them of bureaucratic interference in fulfilling their dreams of transfer of power. His motto for selecting Planning Board Members was ‘chosen on the basis of organizational skills and democratic credentials, not on academic talents alone’ which became the accepted norm when Mr. E K Nayanar became Chief Minister again in 1996. (Though this motto continued with Planning Board for years, it must be admitted that such people as Mr. C P John and many others were forced upon this august body in later years for mere political considerations). 

The world missed a fine economist when Dr. Gulati decided to assist Indian states more.

07. A portrait of Dr. I S Gulati.

Though not a politician, Mr. Gulati was a co-traveller of communist visionaries and assisted the Government of West Bengal also as Economic Advisor in Mr. Jyothi Basu’s time. The world missed his intellectual guidance after he served only for a short time with international organizations: three years during 1968-72 in the United Nations Organization as Regional Economic Adviser for the Caribbean and Adviser for the Economic Commission for Latin America, and in 1972 in the International Monetary Fund as Tax Policy Advisor. He served the people of Kerala well till his demise in 2002. His greatness consists in abandoning the splendor, luxury and limelight of living in the mainstream cities of the world, of working for economic organizations of world renown, of accepting world’s top-most salaries and moving in circles whose decisions wreck the life of human beings everywhere and at the same time advising Kerala as a sign of magnanimity for no salary, as later Economic Advisers to Kerala did, and does. He chose not to ascend to such lofty ivory towers but to live in Kerala among the people who most needed him, enjoying the frugal conveniences this small state provided, and to serve them to the end with the best of the economic services in the world. 


The brave woman who broke away from bankrupting Brahmin customs, confined daily worship to a single lamp, and did away with ridiculous rituals and pujas. 

08. Gulati home in 2009, before. 01

While the ruckus we mentioned earlier was going on in the North Western Frontier Provinces near Afghanistan, Leela Gulati was living a quiet life as a child in the old Mysore State in South India. Born in a very conservative and orthodox Brahmin family, her roots took origin in the 1860s in a family in a small village called Kadathur in Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu and a rich land-owning family in the village Kozhinjja Waadi on the banks of the Amaravati River in the old Madras Presidency, in the form of her maternal and paternal great-grand parents respectively. Traditionally paddy cultivators, this couple lived in an Agraharam with 60 other families in the husband’s place. Honesty and magnanimity with kith and kin soon made them bankrupt and Bala and Ponnamma, both English and Sanskrit-educated, migrated to Burma seeking their fortune there, leaving children behind. Her second daughter Seetha at the age of eleven was married to an ascetic scholar in accordance with the then Tamil Brahmin customs and had four children. This ascetic scholar had close connections with the Mysore Palace and soon after the birth of the second of his two daughters, Saraswathi, he was appointed as Registrar of the University of Mysore. Saraswathi, making the meaning of her name worthwhile, grew up as a learnèd Brahmin girl, was English-educated, travelled to Burma to see her parents, and for the first time recognized the higher status of women in the Burmese society, compared to their low status in India, particularly among Tamil Brahmins. She married a brilliant Economics lecturer and according to his jobs, with him and her children, lived at Mysore, Madurai, Belgaum, Bombay, Bangalore, Indore where he was appointed as Industries Director and became sick and died, then at Ahmadabad and Baroda with son, and finally again at Bangalore. It was this woman who was destined to be a perpetual traveller who finally ‘broke away from the bankrupting customs of their community, confined daily worship to a single lighted lamp before the deity, did away with ridiculous rituals and pujas and decided to do away with even illogical arranged marriages and dowries’ in future in their family, became the first multi-lingual, foreign travelled cosmopolitan in their family. She also crossed the sea loosing thus her caste, travelled to as far and distant countries as Switzerland and America and stayed there for two decades, ‘keeping her shrine and lighted lamps in spite of fire hazards’ and attending to her children and grandchildren living there. She was the one who imbued cosmopolitan views in her daughter Leela, born while at Mysore. When her daughter Leela graduated in Economics, was doing some jobs as Library Assistant and Researcher, fell in love with a Sikh Economist migrated from Pakistan at the time of the Partition, and wanted to marry him out of caste, this wise mother consented to her daughter’s wishes.

Leela Gulati has her own field and world of recognition, besides being wife of a top-rated economist.

09. Gulati home in 2009, before. 02 

The books written by Leela Gulati are focused mainly on poor women and the most noted among them are 1. Profiles In Female Poverty 1982, 2. Women In The Unorganized Sector 1982, 3. Impact Of The Development Process On The Indian Family 1982, 4. Fisherwomen On The Kerala Coast 1984, 5. In The Absence Of Their Men 1993, 6. Women Migrant Workers In Asia 1993, 7. Gender Narratives 2003, 8. A Space of Her Own 2005, 9. Narratives of Twelve Women 2005, and 10. Child Labour in Kerala's Coir Industry 2008, in addition to numerous research works in economics and on the upliftment of women. The Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 8 No. 1 (1993, pp. 53-63), in their article ‘Population - Ageing and Women in Kerala State, India by Leela Gulati’ says that ‘the author of this note is Leela Gulati, Centre for Development Studies, Prasant Nagar Road, Ulloor, Trivandrum 695 011, Kerala, India and that this note is an abridged version of the author's paper on Female Dimensions of Population Ageing in Kerala State, presented at the Expert Group Meeting on Integration of Aging and Elderly Women into Development, Division for the Advancement of Women, United Nations, Vienna, October 1991.’ The address of Leela Gulati for decades was @ Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, India. Both the Gulatis were unequalled researchers in economics and people’s-side campaigners for the transfer of economic power of the state to people. Kerala used them a lot, developed the state based on their economic theories and tactics and pleaded them to settle in Trivandrum which they did after leaving their relatives in Coimbatore, Mysore, Baroda, Amritsar, Delhi, Karachi, Burma, Switzerland and America. Had they remained with their relatives in those states, countries, no one would have dared to touch their home. Whatever excuses Kerala have for permitting two philistines touch and demolish their home are not acceptable. In any other country but in India and Kerala, any government official who protected such criminality would immediately have been dismissed from service and imprisoned.


Birds, beasts and human beings once disturbed in their homes are disturbed for the rest of their life. 

10. Gulati home in 2011, before. 03

Nests are endeared to birds, dens to beasts and homes to human beings. Once disturbed in their homes, they all are disturbed and pained for the rest of their lives. Predators in the form of reptiles, carnivores and real estate developers come all the time to make hell in the life of human beings living peacefully. That was what happened to the Gulatis’ home in later years. When they decided to settle at Trivandrum, Mr. Laurence Wilfred Laurie Baker, the world-renowned British architect and India’s Padma Shri –honoured dignitary came to Trivandrum and built a beautiful house for them at Chettikkunnu, Kumarapuram, Trivandrum, as his tribute. Dr. Gulati passed away and Mrs. Gulati became alone in the house. Mr. Laurie Baker’s grandson came and personally took photographs of this monumental work for record. Business houses noted thus the prominence of this place, bought the valley below the house which never can be bought for development as it is wet land, began excavations without proper permissions under tacit agreement with a bunch of officials and caused landslide and the inevitable fall of this magnificent house. That was their contribution! 

It is painful and traumatic to see what is ours being taken away using brute force with heavy machinery working illegally and criminally.

11. Gulati home in 2011, before. 04

Have anyone experienced, seen or felt, standing on the victim’ side of such horror, the terrors of a legitimate house being crushed bit by bit, brick by brick, piece by piece by a realtor owning the next property by scratching bucketful after bucketful of soil with bulldozers, after heavily bribing government officials in that area? It is a painful and traumatic experience to see what is ours being taken away using brute force with heavy machinery working illegally and criminally day and night, roaring without stop, with government officers and politicians in that district bribed and no one coming to our help. Remember that it was a woman, a widowed woman, a brilliant writer in English whose books opened the eyes of the world to the myriad problems of the poor Indian women, who stood witnessing the vanishing of her good old home, brought about by worthless low brains in Trivandrum city, who were protected by criminal elements in government. (The very nearest lands to the plot where these excavations were taking place was later proved to have been involved in one of the biggest land scams in Kerala, resulting in the arrest and indictment of the then Chief Minister’s staff by CBI, the details of which are given in paragraphs following). The two business houses alleged to be involved in this case, as reported by government agencies in April 2014 and by media in July 2016, were Quilon Radio Service (QRS) and Valley View Gardens Developers, Trivandrum. It must be said that one single article written by Leela Gulati titled ‘The Tyranny of Tradition’ is worth many times more the combined worth of all the worldly assets of Quilon Radio Service and Valley View Garden Developers and whoever associated with them! 

In spite of intellectually nurturing many luminaries, none came to help.

12. Gulati home in 2011, before. 05 

Dr. Gulati had quite a number of students and admirers in the economic field who held key positions in government but when her home was brutally bulldozed down by land mafia, none came to her rescue, in spite of the couple having intellectually nurtured many luminaries. In the midst of them all, Smt. Leela Gulati says, the then opposition MLA and the now Finance Minister of Kerala Dr. T M Thomas Isaac stood with her from the beginning. According to her and according to Dr. Isaac’s Face Book Post dated 18 July 2016 on the issue of the destruction of the Gulatis House in Kumarapuram, Trivandrum, he helped in filing a complaint with the Medical College Police Station, approached twice the then Chief Minister Mr. Ommen Chandy, called the City Police Commissioner, went to see the Home Minister, and got the then District Collector Mr. Kaushik and Sub Collector Mr. Karthikeyan directly involved, but excavations continued without stop and a portion of the house had already fallen in spite of the interference of this cream of authorities in the state. He does not hesitate to state that the power of land mafia in Trivandrum is unstoppable. In this note he also states that Mr. Biju Prabhakar IAS was also got involved who inspected the site in person, saw more portions of the house had fallen, and estimated the cost of constructing a supporting wall to be around 2 Crores Rupees, and that was when governmental action stopped, probably because of the largeness of the amount involved. Why did this government action stop there really?

Their other associates in the CDS who once longingly worked with this couple and who still have considerable influence in government chose to remain silent, since the two business houses involved were heavy contributors to political parties. The land mafia is hungry and ravenous enough to gulp down even the chief minister and his finance minister in one single bite, as Dr. Thomas Isaac vouchsafes in his note. The writers of Kerala who are noticeably quick to jump at every chance to air their names through criticizing the attacks on writers everywhere in the world did not respond to this attack against the home of the most worthy among them, Smt. Leela Gulati. They were keen to keep silence and not antagonize anyone who could obstruct their jumping onto the governing bodies of hundreds of literary, cultural and fine arts committees under the Government of Kerala. Who did they all fear actually?

The answers to these two questions can be inferred by anyone with common sense and a willingness to accept facts by going through the information unraveled in the central government agency’s investigations.

There exists a realtor-government officials-nexus reaching up to the Chief Minister’s office.

There does exist a realtor-government officials-nexus reaching up to the Chief Minister’s office. The CBI proved it existed in the past chief minister Mr. Oommen Chandy’s regime and the present chief minister Mr. Pinarayi Vijayan has not been able to prove it does not exist in his regime. This nexus discourages people’s complaints against land developments through subtle interventions and see to it that no complaint goes beyond a certain level of remedial action. It is a long-term strategy, perfected through years of following in the footsteps of major realtors in the world, a strategy kept ship-shape by changing short-time tactics according to country, state and district, to create the most desirable climate for realtors and builders to function, to act smoothly and freely without people’s or government’s interference. What defense is there for a small state and its government against such refined, polished, oiled and world-widely adopted strategies, with one of the largest networks in the world of the most corrupted officers to back, they all ready to act at short notices, with unlimited government resources and power at their disposal?

Though will appear innocuous, the finest example of the many delay tactics adopted by this nexus for allowing time for culprits to continue and finish their activities is preparing government records in Malayalam so that translating them in to English before submitting them to court upon court’s orders will gain more time for these criminals. The Division Bench of the Kerala High Court during hearing on 2 September 2015 slammed the state government for not submitting the land records in English.

Nothing changed in 2016 except a chief minister and a cabinet; the organization is the same.

Investigations conducted by Central Government Agencies in Kerala proved that a nexus of government officials and realtors was in existence for long. Even the Division Bench of the Hon’ble High Court of Kerala on 1 October 2015 wondered ‘how persons named in land grab cases could have this much influence in the Chief Minister’s office’ and even asked ‘if he is the real Chief Minister, to have influenced the highest authorities in the state including the Director General of Police.’ Remember that the land and building of the Gulatis mentioned here are situated in the Kadakampalli Village of Trivandrum City. Illegally alienating land by changing titles in revenue records with official help, and creating artificial records of title and selling such land to others without the knowledge of real owners was the origin of a CBI case from this very Kadakampally Village in 2013. By cheating 188 real owners, conmen grabbed 15 acres of prime land according to the Central Bureau of Investigation. Their indictment included a Deputy Tahsildar of Revenue Department and charges included conspiracy, cheating, forgery, use of forged documents as genuine, and corruption. (The Hindu, 22 July 2016). When this case was charge-sheeted in July 2016 by CBI in Trivandrum Courts, the stretch of land rose to 45 acres as more cases of land grabbing came to light. Let no one say they were all saints in government. Investigations pointed fingers at the very top. Nothing changed in 2016 except a chief minister and a cabinet; the organization is the same.  

The CBI charge-sheeted another four Government Officers in another land grabbing case- Village Officer and Special Village Officer of Thrikkakara North Village Office, an Additional Tahsildar at Kanayannur Taluk, and a clerk in the Land Revenue Division of the District Collectorate, Ernakulum- under Sections 120B, 42, 167, 201 and 204 of Indian Penal Code respectively for criminal conspiracy and cheating, public servant framing incorrect document with intent to cause injury, causing disappearance of evidence of offence, and destruction of document or electronic record to prevent its production as evidence, in the Kalamassery Land Grab Case in Kochi. Even one Land Revenue Commissioner, Mr. T O Sooraj IAS, was included as witness in the case after he could not be proved involved. (The Hindu, 23 July 2015). This case was filed in CBI Court III. 

Staff in Kerala Chief Minister’s office was mentioned in both cases. Chief Minister’s office had to remove at least one person from staff after charge-sheeting in these land grab cases. What further evidence is needed to prove Kerala’s Government Secretariate is the operation base for land mafias and is saturated with people who are extremely willing to help and who would smell new cases filed by new victims and thwart action through covert operations, if the money is good and the added attractions are exotic? Without help reaching up to Secretary and Cabinet-levels, how can land grabbing activities to the tune of 250 crores and 500 crores go on throughout the state for years without detection by the dozens of state departments’ vigilance offices?

Excavations carried out without environmental clearances, in uncontrolled manners, defying government.

13. Department of Environment Notice. Page 01

Verification of government records shows that the Department of Environment & Climate Change of Government of Kerala even as early as 10 April 2014 issued notice to initiate immediate action to stop all construction activities in the site. A scanned copy of this notice which is self-speaking is reproduced here for readers benefit, with relevant extracts:

Notice No: DoECC/E3/1069/2014, Dated: 10. 04. 2014 of the Department of Environment & Climate Change, Govt. of Kerala.

14. Department of Environment Notice. Page 02

Notice No: DoECC/E3/1069/2014, Dated: 10. 04. 2014, of the Director, Department of Environment & Climate Change, Govt. of Kerala, addressed to the Secretary of Thiruvananthapuram Corporation and the District Police Chief of Thiruvananthapuram City.

Sub: Illegal excavations causing possible house collapse and loss of life- Stopping the dangerous activities- Notice Issued.

Ref: G.O. (Ms) No.04/2014/Envt, Dated: 19. 03. 2014.

“During the inspection it was noted that the land in front of the complainant’s residence was found to be excavated in an uncontrolled manner so that the elevated terrain was found to be under the peril of an anticipatory subsidence/landslip which is likely to keep the inhabitants of the vicinity, especially the residence of the complainant, in utmost danger. On close examination, it was noticed that the builder group who had conducted the excavation work have not obtained prior Environmental Clearance which is mandatory as per EIA Notification 2006 and subsequent amendment for removing ordinary earth. In this context the action is considered as grave violation of the provisions of EIA Notification 2006 and subsequent amendments of Government of India which warrants stringent action under the section 5, Rule 15 of E(P) Act 1986.”

“In the light of these facts and the relevant provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act 1986, direction is hereby issued to initiate immediate action to stop all the construction activities in the site specified by serving the notice to Mr. Abhimanya Ganesh, Owner of QRS, MG Road, Thruvananthapuram & Mr. Balu Swamy, Manager, Valley View Gardens.” 

P Sreekantan Nair, Director.

Who prevented this order from being carried out is the responsibility of the government to find out.
This human rights violation was brought to public attention by online writers, journalists and news portals.

It was online writers, journalists and news portals who brought this criminal injustice to public attention and released the Before-And-After Pictures of this house in internet. Activities thus came under public scrutiny and government was forced to respond. They told press that reports were called for and the house would be reconstructed at government expense, invoking the Disaster Management Act. It only meant the land mafia was let go and the government is holding the baby. It also meant bureaucrats would get a free hand in dragging things for months, even for years. It cannot be believed that the Indian Administrative Service personnel in government did not know about the Indian Easements Act which has the finest and the most powerful provisions to rectify damages caused through unlawful excavations and bring aggressors under yoke. What the government feared most was, registering cases under the British-born Indian Easements Act would make public aware of the applicability of this act in incidents of atrocities against their homes, would be the beginning of thousands of cases filed by people who lost their homes due to illegal excavations, and land mafias and mega flat builders which invest heavily in the making of governments won’t anymore be able to function anywhere in Kerala without people resisting by invoking this Act. That was why the (hollow?) words about invoking the Disaster Management Act and not a word about invoking the powerful Indian Easements Act.

Had I been Chief Minister, I would have seen to it that a Chinese Great Wall was raised to protect that house within a week.

15. Gulati home in 2011, before. 06
The writer of this article, as an author and as a citizen, has the right to contemplate and for imagination, and he did contemplate and imagine and publish a note on what he would have done, had he been the chief minister. It is the only part in this article which is imagination. Here it is: “Had I been the Chief Minister of Kerala, I would not have needed media to report this as news, but as a senior and vigilant politician, would already have known about this destruction of the living abode of two living legends who served my people and my party for a lifetime. I would learn that there already is a Magistrate’s Order on this issue, directing the responsible parties to build 50 feet-high supporting walls and help rebuild the house exactly as it had been earlier. I would have directed my Private Secretary or even my Chief Secretary to identify all officers in all departments who tried in every way to stall enforcing this Magisterial Order, and to summon them and warn them of instant suspension and prompt dismissal, if restoration works on the house were not seen begun within three working days. I would also direct he or she who is paid to work for me to identify the names of those two business houses responsible for this inhuman atrocity, and to summon them and warn them unless the collapsed residence was restored to its previous condition within record time at their expense, not only this but other similar atrocities by them with bulldozers on other houses also will be exposed to people and they will be made to stop functioning in the state within twenty four hours. My officials would also ask them how come they got permission to develop a land which is seen in the pictures as a wet land with paddy fields. I would also already have ensured that my Private Secretary is clean and is not on the Payroll of mafias, and sit in peace of my mind and see within a week that a Chinese Great Wall was raised to protect that house.”


What is powerful and protective in the Indian Easements Act 1882?

16. Gulati home in 2015, after. 01  

The Indian Easements Act has provisions for 1, immediate inspection and assessment of vertical and structural damages in the present and that may occur in the future, 2, halting of all kinds of works in the spot by the servient owner, 3, construction of sufficiently high and thick granite supporting walls with enough buffer zones to strengthen the dominant owner’s house, and 4, ensuring all other essential easement rights including light and air, privacy and used-water disposal. Government authorities in Kerala are in perpetual silence on the points clearly laid down in this Act and further clarified and emphasized by Indian Law Courts since then.

An easement is a certain right to use the real property of another without possessing it. Historically, the law enforces four types of easement: 1. Right-of-way (easements of way), 2. Easements of support (pertaining to excavations), 3. Easements of light and air and 4. Rights pertaining to artificial waterways. Modern courts recognize more varieties of easements, but these original categories still form the foundation of easement laws. A negative easement is the right to prevent another from performing an otherwise lawful activity on their property. A negative easement might even restrict a person from blocking another’s Mountain View by putting up a wall of trees or a concrete structure. The period of continuous easement to become binding is generally between 5 and 30 years. In the law of England and Wales, which is the basis for the Indian laws, any deprivation of the rights of the owner of a property must be ‘in accordance with law’ as well as ‘necessary in a democratic society’ and ‘proportionate’. The following rights are recognized as an easement:

1. Right to light, also called solar easement: The right to receive a minimum quantity of light in favour of a window or other aperture in a building which is primarily designed to admit light.

2. Utility easement including: Storm drain or storm water easement, an easement to carry rainwater to a river, wetland, detention pond, or other body of water.

3. Sanitary sewer easement: An easement to carry used water to a sewage disposal or sewage treatment.

4. View easement: Prevents someone from blocking the view of the easement owner, or permits the owner to cut the blocking vegetation on the land of another.

5. Easement of lateral and subjacent support: Prohibits an adjoining land owner from digging too deep on his lot or in any manner depriving his neighbor of vertical or horizontal support on the latter's structures e.g. buildings, fences, etc.

Easement is a right which the owner of a particular land enjoys over an adjacent property without possessing it.

17. Gulati home in 2015, after. 02  

The word Easement stands for the right to use another’s property. It is a right, which the owner of a particular land enjoys over an adjacent property, which he or she does not possess. It is the right over a property belonging to someone else and not to the person claiming easement. Servient owner has to abide by the requirements and convenience of the dominant owner whether he likes it or not; it is a burden brought to bear on him by custom. Easement by virtue of custom is a legal right acquired by the operation of law through continuous use of a land over a long period of time. According to the Indian Easements Act 1882, for example, the inhabitants of a building enjoying the access and use of air and light as a right, continuously for over 20 years, have the right to enjoy them without any condition or restriction.

Possessor of a servient heritage has to carry the burden of easement for all times to come, for the benefit and enjoyment of the possessor of the dominant heritage.

Many buildings are constructed today very close to existing buildings, ignoring the conveniences of nearby residents. Virtually no space would be left in between the buildings, blocking airflow and natural light to the smaller houses. The inhabitants of those houses who were getting fresh air and natural light for years suddenly will find themselves deprived of these blessings due to a multi-storied building constructed close by. Such haphazard constructions are not allowed by law. That is what laws are there for- to prevent haphazard constructions. Now, buildings are required to be constructed in a well-planned manner. Leaving minimum set backs as prescribed between two buildings for free flow of air and natural light is now mandatory. Therefore, anyone who comes into possession of a servient heritage has to carry the burden of easement for all times to come, for the benefit and enjoyment of the person who comes into possession of the dominant heritage. 

There have been so many incidents of easement violations in Kerala lately. Who lost easements were all innocent, helpless and defenseless people. Houses, cattle sheds, out houses and wells became stranded after wanton excavations and can now be seen precariously slanting towards man-made gorges everywhere, ready to fall any time, at the whisk of a wind. People who did this were the immensely rich who organized bulldozer and tipper activities and escaped without punishment with government help. Carrying on bulldozer activities on Government holidays is standard in Kerala so that the other party will not get time for seeking legal protection. Officials in City Corporations, Revenue Village Offices and Village Panchayats have the authority and responsibility to injunction, order halt of works, deny or withdraw construction permits, deny future building permissions, and make offenders rectify damages within three consecutive working days at their expense, but they sleep on currency given as bribe.

Society is harsh and unforgiving to vulnerable women - institutionalized discrimination.

18. Mrs. Leela Gulati in 2011. 

What Leela Gulati wrote in her article about her mother also serves as her own message to the world: ‘She understood very early in life that society was rarely compassionate, and often harsh and unforgiving to a vulnerable woman. The ‘mistakes’ of her life, she realized, were not of her own making but were the products of institutionalized discrimination against Indian women. Adversity only strengthened her character, for she constantly analyzed and learnt from the injustices she encountered.’

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All mighty fighters lay down their weapons majestically, at the sight of beings neither man nor woman on the opposite side.


What observations, opinions and inferences made or expressed in this article are the author’s alone, and not in anyway Mrs. Leela Gulati’s or those of any of the parties mentioned. Online interviews with Mrs. Leela Gulati and her published books helped much in clarifying points pertaining to partition, Dr. Gulati’s life and career and her own life and social relations. She was emphatic about how Dr. T M Thomas Isaac, the then opposition MLA and the present Finance Minister of Kerala and many others in government helped. Her words: “There has been a lot of public support and sympathy and the two Collectors are trying their level best but it is very difficult to deal with Indian business men.” The prime objective of this article was to record for future the sojourn of the Gulatis from Khyber to Kerala, to note how easy it was for some to inflict pain on members of this magnanimous family, and to tell everyone about their Easement Rights, even if the business of every realtor stops. As everyone except just a few would agree, ‘the thousands of house collapses caused by land mafia in Kerala must be investigated and compensated, and international human rights organizations must look into them.’ The author expresses herewith his thanks and limitless gratitude to everyone who helped with facts and provided photographs for this social cause.

Taking into account the condition of the house and the land, the degree of involvement of officials in the present government and the political climate in Trivandrum, it looks Mrs. Gulati will never see her house restored to its previous condition in her life time. And it also does not seem likely that she would ever write about this again. Like Bheekshma in that great Indian Epic Mahabharata, all mighty fighters lays down their weapons majestically, at the sight of beings neither man nor woman on the opposite side, keeping to good Indian traditions. She will be resigned and pass the legacy of her suffering and anguish to future generations regally.

Today the victims of house collapses caused by land mafia are scattered and they do not know about provisions in the Indian Easements Act. Tomorrow they will unite and educate themselves in laws regarding the safety of their houses. Certainly there will be investigations by Central Agencies on the thousands of house collapses in Kerala. There may even be UN Commissions’ and International Human Rights Commission’s Rapporteurs investigating these cases, as more and more international exposure of these human rights violations come to fore. The land mafia and their cahoots in governments may be able to stop it for a time but it will happen.

Article Title Image By Santhosh KB. Graphics: Adobe SP.

Pictures Courtesy: Wikimedia Commons, Mrs. Leela Gulati,
Ms. Merle Kindred, Ms. Priya Gulati, Ms. Mitu Gulati,
Mr. B S Prasannan, Mr. Santhosh K B and Mr. Aneesh Lal.


Picture Credits:

01. Article Announcement Note

P S Remesh Chandran
02. Special Refugee Train During India Partition

IB Ministry, Govt. Of India
03. Charred Bodies And Vultures After Calcutta Riots

04. Bannu Hindus and Sikhs Migrate to India

05. Bannu in Pakistan Today 65 Years Later

Omer Wazir Tucson USA
06. Dr. Iqbal Singh Gulati In Garden

Leela Gulati
07. Portrait Of Dr. Iqbal Singh Gulati

Leela Gulati
08. Gulati Home in 2009 Before 01

BS Prasannan
09. Gulati Home in 2009 Before 02

BS Prasannan
10. Gulati Home in 2011 Before 03

Santhosh KB
11. Gulati Home in 2011 Before 04

Santhosh KB
12. Gulati Home in 2011 Before 05

Santhosh KB
13. Department of Environment Notice Page 01

Leela Gulati
14. Department of Environment Notice Page 02

Leela Gulati
15. Gulati Home in 2011 Before 06

Santhosh KB
16. Gulati Home In 2015 After 01

Aneesh Lal
17. Gulati Home In 2015 After 02

Aneesh Lal
18. Mrs Leela Gulati In 2011

Santhosh KB
19. Author Profile Of P S Remesh Chandran

Sahyadri Archives, Trivandrum

A little about the author and accessing his other literary works.

Author P S Remesh Chandran. Editor of Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum. Author of several books in English and in Malayalam. And also author of 'Swan, The Intelligent Picture Book'. Edits and owns Bloom Books Channel. Born and brought up in Nanniyode, a little village in the Sahya Mountain Valley in Kerala. Father British Council-trained English Teacher and mother university-educated. Matriculation with High First Class, Pre Degree studies in Science with National Merit Scholarship, discontinued Diploma Studies in Electronics and entered politics. Unmarried and single.

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If you cannot access all pages of P S Remesh Chandran, Editor, Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum, kindly access them via this link provided here:

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Articles, Atrocities Against Women, Bloom Books Trivandrum, British India Pakistan Partition, Centre For Development Studies, Disaster Management Act, Dr Iqbal Singh Gulati, Economic Advisor Kerala, Essays, Human Rights Violations, Indian Easements Act, Investigative Reports, Kerala Economic Development, Kerala News, Land Mafia, Leela Gulati, Leela Gulatis Home Collapsed By Land Mafia, P S Remesh Chandran, Refugees In Free India, Sahyadri Books Trivandrum, Trivandrum News

First published on: 25th Jul 2016

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Saturday, January 2, 2016

070. Night Of The Scorpion. Nissim Essekiel Poem. Reintroduced By P S Remesh Chandran


Night Of The Scorpion. Nissim Essekiel Poem Reintroduced

P. S. Remesh Chandran

Editor, Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum

Article Title Image By Parij Borgohain. Graphics: Adobe SP.

First published: 2nd Jan 2016

When some kind of disaster happens to a child anywhere in India, the entire womenfolk of India will weep. It is in their nature. Once a woman is a mother to one, she becomes a mother to all. And she will spare her life for the safety of her child too. This character inborn in the nature of women is universal. Mr. Nissim Essekiel’s poem ‘Night Of The Scorpion’ is a window into this a universal character of motherhood by featuring a typical scene from an Indian village on a rainy night.

Once a child is born, the pleasures of the parents cease; from then onwards only the child would have pleasures in life.

One distinguishable difference between the east and the west is in the treatment of their children. In the east, life centres on and spins around children. Parents live for their children, sacrificing their pleasures for the welfare of their children. Once a child is born the pleasures of parents ceases to be; from then onwards only the child would have any pleasures in life. The children remember this while they grow up and look after and care for their parents in their old age. That is why there is less number of old age homes in the east when compared to the west. Children in the east are never left to themselves even after they have become fathers and mothers in their turn. This bond of family is inviolable and grandparents and parents and children live under the same roof for ever, providing excellent opportunities for wise counsel for everyone under that roof.

In the west, parents seldom see the radiance and beauty of their sleeping child.

All village roads lead to virtues.

In the west, generally speaking, parents treat children as obstacles to their private life and pleasures and keep them away from their bedrooms. There will be a nursery room in each house and children will only be allowed to sleep in those rooms. They will never be allowed to sleep with parents in their beds even when they are tiny babies. This does account for the early maturity of western children and their corresponding independence and skill in dominating and capturing the world. But, parents seldom see the radiance and beauty of their sleeping children. They will, anyway, allow the dog to sleep with them in their beds. What love and attendance they deny to their children they give to their dogs. But will these dogs look after them and provide for them when they are old and helpless? To be put mildly, they are a success with dogs but a failure with their children. The abundance of old age homes in Europe and other cold continents vouchsafes for this.

In the orient children grows up sitting in, crawling on and somersaulting over parents’ beds day and night.

Farmers’ houses are an extension of their fields.

In the orient, people cannot even think about detaching their children from their beds, or rooms. There most probably will not be more than one or two rooms in their houses. So the child grows up crawling on, sitting in, and somersaulting over parents’ beds day and night, exposing his or her every emotion, feeling, gesture and awkward sleeping pose to their parents, and the parents are delighted at these too. They do not consider children as a hindrance to their private pleasure life. Actually they do not have much private life anymore. And this accounts for the late maturity of oriental children and their lack of aggressiveness and relative independence in conquering the world. Now we know why great conquerors marched through the east and not vice versa.

Article Title Image By Martin Jernberg. Graphics: Adobe SP.

A distinguished characteristic of orient life is the respect children show to their elders.

Their needs are few and wishes modest.

Another distinguished character of orient life is the respect children show to their elders. Once grown up, they are not allowed to even sit before the elders. Countries like China and Japan have elaborate rituals for the young to show respect to elders, including lying prone on the ground when meeting them. Handshakes and Namastes are uncommon and unaccustomed for the young. Now we know why most Chinese, Japanese and Indian leaders are very old men, strictly obeyed by younger generations, unquestioned in their decisions. This guidance and counsel of the wise and the old ensures that the onward progress of society is smooth, does not go beyond defined and well-cut paths, and there is proportional balancing guaranteed in every change brought forth in society. It also ensures that one hand or one leg of the body society will not outgrow the other hand or leg out-of-proportion and result in total ugliness. Experiences of eighty years are mightier that experiences of thirty years and the wise east know this well.

Rain and scorpion, peasants and superstitions and typical Indian father and mother.

The next house is just a door step away.

Nissim Ezekiel's plays and poems usually appeared in the Illustrated Weekly of India. Although many of his poems are obscure, ‘Night Of The Scorpion’ is simple, clear and direct. In this poem he presents a typical situation in an Indian village where a mother is stung at night by a scorpion. The poem has three distinct parts- the heavy rains and the appearance of a scorpion in a house, the gathering of peasants and their inter-exchange of many superstitions and semi-scientific truths, and lastly the picture of a rationalistic father and that of a tolerant Indian mother.

In mishaps and calamities people got instant help, as God intended while he was peopling the world with human beings.

The mother of all the world returns from market.

The narrator of the incident described in the poem is the boy-poet himself. It was the season of heavy Indian monsoon with steady ten hour-long rains. His mother was stung by a scorpion at night as it was moving from one rain-soaked shelter to another which, after doing this invaluable service to a poor woman, escaped among the sacks of rice and could not be found. Now comes what is typical of an Indian village. Even though it was a night of steady rain, a large number of neighbouring peasants gathered in the house with lanterns and candles instantly, hearing the loud cries from the house. This has been the custom in this world till a few years back, and which we would wish to have come back. In mishaps and calamities people got instant help, as was intended by God while he was peopling the world with human beings. This virtue is now saying farewell to the world; we can hold it back or send it away by amending our attitudes to others. Nowadays the universal practice is each will look after only his interests.

Sins of a previous life would be burnt away in the pain and agony in the present life.

Incessant rain viewed from shack. 

The boy-poet listened to the utterances of the superstitious peasants believing the scorpion to be an evil spirit, and singing and chanting rapidly the names of their multitude of Gods a hundred times, so that its combined sonar effect would paralyze the evil spirit of the scorpion and make it unable to move anymore. When considering the tale of the famous sonar trumpet which shook the walls and felled the fortress of Jericho as explained towards the end of this article, this belief cannot be said to be superstitious. They did this with the purpose of stilling the scorpion, as its every movement was expected to cause a corresponding movement of poison in the blood stream of the mother, spreading the poison throughout her body. So it was better for the scorpion not to be allowed to move. So they prayed that the scorpion shall not be made to move in its hiding place. The peasants however found solace in the fact that the sins of the bitten woman’s previous life would have been burned away in the severe pain and agony she went through in that night.

Pour paraffin upon the bitten toe and light it so that the chemical properties of the poison would be lost in that heat.

Rain means playtime for children soon after.

The incantations and mantras of the gathered peasants did not help much and the bitten lady lying on a mat on the floor of the house continued to writhe in agony. The boy's father was a rationalist person different from the others who believed in the modern methods of treatment. He was scientific enough to pour a little paraffin wax upon the bitten toe and put a match to it so that that the paraffin would melt evolving heat and the chemical properties of the poison would be lost in that heat. The contrast between the peasants and his father is clear and not uncommon in Indian villages. Not all in India are that much superstitious and blind. But nothing succeeded in abating the agony of the woman in this case. After twenty hours the agony abated by itself, as is usual with the effect of scorpion poison on human body. The relieved mother, for the first time, found words to thank God for sparing her children and making the scorpion sting her instead of her children. The universal feeling of a Mother's care!

There are scientific minded and rational men also among superstitious villagers.

Real village school begins here.

The peasants in the village were traditionally superstitious and began to chant various names of their Gods when there was a mishap such that the total sonar effect of this mayhem would make the scorpion immobile in its hiding place. They also whispered among them that the sins of this woman would be burnt away in the fire of her intense agony. But the poet's father, a rational and scientific man asks them to put paraffin on her bitten toe and light it on the hope that the chemical properties of the poison would be lost in the heat so generated and would become ineffective in her blood stream. However, when the agony seemed not to have abated after a long time, even he became frantic, as a wife is a wife anyway. The presence of many scientific minded and rational men among superstitious peasants in Indian villages pointed out in the poem is a pointer anyway. Rooted firmly in soil, these peasants have risen when need arose to produce enough crops to feed the second largest population in the world, adopting modern agricultural technology and innovations. They also succeeded in doing this without over-exploiting their cultivatable land or diminishing its fertility.

Article Title Image By Ashwini Chaudhary. Graphics: Adobe SP.

Sin of present and past lives, and cleansing human mind through intense pain.

Typical Indian village gathering point.

Sin accompanies man from his origins. It can be caused by the acts in his present life, past life or by the acts of his ancestors. But all agree that sins in man have to be purged and his soul salvaged and redeemed. The superstitious villagers in The Night Of The Scorpion exclaim that the sins of the flesh and soul of the stung lady in her present life as well as in her past lives would have been burnt away in the intense pain she suffered. Perhaps they were not all that superstitious. It is universal belief that pain cleanses human mind and perhaps is the only way to cleanse human mind. The ancient Greeks called this process of cleansing human minds through intense emotions Catharsis. The ancient Indians called it Mukthi or Release.

In a village, all roads lead to virtues.

Debates conducted and decisions taken here.

An Indian village consists mostly of poor men’s huts, a few pieces of arable land, one single street, tiny roadside shops where endless debates go on, regular sitting places beneath the usual Bunyan trees, and village wells for women to carry water from. News travels fast in villages- good and bad- and people are always there at your doorstep to help. There is no use wishing to live a secreted life in a village. Everyone’s life is an open book for others to read and criticize freely. When a problem comes in a family, it would not need to be explained to people, for the people in the village would have been expecting it for a long time and preparing themselves to interfere. In a village no one goes un-helped: the fallen will surely be taken to hospital, the hungry will surely be found and fed, and old school text books, clothes and utensils gifted to those who need them. Villages have virtues and their share of vices too, but mostly virtues. Remember Gandhi’s saying ‘India lives in her thousands of villages’.

Tibetans in higher Himalayan altitudes used sonic effect to levitate heavy stones upward.

Innocent passing time in Indian village life.

Many readers may view the chanting of mantras and hymns by villagers as described in this poem a superstition. It does have its sonic effect. It can be healing or destructive as the case can be. Ancient Indians have formulated sound combinations known as Mantras to heal human body in its ailments. There was a technique used by Tibetans in the higher Himalayan altitudes to move heavy stones upward, using the sonic effect of sound. They would sit in semi-circles blowing their trumpets and beating drums, using this power of sound to levitate heavy stones to the desired higher elevations from their focal points. It was that simple. In Bible we read about the story of the brick mud walls and the stone walls of the sinned city of Jericho scientifically brought down by Israelites under the commandership of Joshua, using the power of sound.

The Walls of Jericho fell down as trumpets blew and soldiers shouted for seven days.

Roadside shops Govt. closes for Walmart!

The Israelites under Joshua crossed the Jordan River, and using the calculated supernatural powers of sound, collapsed the walls of Jericho. They blew their Shofars (Special Trumpets) around the walls, making a ‘Phi’ sound once each day for six days, and on the seventh day, circled it blowing their trumpets, soldiers shouting in their full might meanwhile. The ‘Phi’ sound made using their special army trumpets have a multiplying ratio which expands and magnifies, without ever loosing its proportions and qualities. The result was the six days’ rumbling made targeted portions of the wall weak and the combined sonar effect on the seventh day acted like an earthquake, bringing down the already weakened walls. The Israelites made the wall to collapse in such a way that the portion on the north side was allowed to remain standing using the physics of sound, supposedly to save the houses of their favourites and spies, and the rest was made to fall to make an entryway for soldiers before capturing the City. It was like applying measured sonar effects on an object in desired cycles, creating resonance and sonic boom! Sound waves must have met at the centre of the city, collided together and exploded, and the pressure within pushed the walls outwards!!

(Prepared as a lecture to literature students in the 1990s. Revised since then, edited and added pictures to fit the digital era)

Pictures Courtesy: Wikimedia Commons

Picture Credits:

01. All village roads lead to virtues:By Biswarup Ganguly
02. Farmers’ houses are an extension of their fields:By Arne Hückelheim
03. Their needs are few and wishes modest:By Vipin Goyal
04. The next house is just a door step away
:By Dwaipayan C
05. The mother of all the world returns from market.By Aslam Saiyad
06. Incessant rain viewed from shack
:By McKay Savage London
07. Rain means playtime for children soon after........By Abhijeet Sawant
08. Real village school begins here
:By Dan Tunstall
09. Typical Indian village gathering point
:By Thamizhpparithi Maari
10. Debates conducted and decisions taken here
:By Tari Buttar
11. Innocent passing time in Indian village life
:By Tari Buttar
12. Roadside shops Govt. closes for Walmart!
:By Ravindra Boopathi
13. Author profile of P S Remesh Chandran
:By Sahyadri Archives Trivandrum

Article Title Image By Abeer Khan. Graphics: Adobe SP.