Monday, November 11, 2019

174. Can geographical indicators like mountains and rivers copyrighted? P S Remesh Chandran

174

Can geographical indicators like mountains and rivers copyrighted?

P S Remesh Chandran

Editor, Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum

  Article Title Image 1 By Sabine-Schwoaze. Graphics: Adobe SP.

UNDER EDIT

This article is part of the soon-to-be-released book,
How writers’ rights are violated everyday




1

*Domain disputes are not the first or the last in this world. It is because it is humans who are involved in the registering of geographical indicators and humans are prone to corruption and bribery. When you apply for registering the name of a place, mountain or river for your product, goods or service, these humans will first tell you that it cannot be registered because doing so would be infringing the rights of others to use that name in future. So you will offer money and the name gets registered. This is what actually happens. All competent authorities know what hurdles it would pose for future venturers in the field and therefore they raise the amount for getting it done. Without bribery and corruption, no geographical names will ever get registered as the applicants do not own these geographical landmarks. So we can say that the rich wins in many cases, but not always. The Tatas of India lost their case over the Himalayas when they claimed the Himalayas was theirs and tried to stop others from using the name of this highest mountain range in the world. So the rich does not always win. They claimed Himalayas and Mineral Water were their registered and copyrighted properties and other Mineral Water companies shall not use the word Himalayas. They could not prove Himalayas and Mineral Water were their creations and that they own them. Why they didn’t register their product as ‘Tata’s Mineral Water from the Himalayas’ was just to try to keep a monopoly in the mineral water trade and prevent other mineral water companies from using the word Himalayas- a very dirty business tool indeed!

*‘Anyone who registers a generic word, term or expression as a trademark suffers the consequence of others being able to use that same word, term or expression for their business so far as theirs is fair use and as long as theirs isn’t infringement.’ Suppose some giant publishing company succeeds in copyrighting a name such as Himalayan Books. The first keyword is Himalayan but they neither created nor own the Himalayas. The second key word is Books and they neither created nor own the term Books. As such, for one, they cannot prevent others from using the name Himalayan Books. For another, the Himalayas are not a place specific to Books and Books is not a product specific to Himalayas. But had they registered a name such as Chaudhuri’s Himalayan Books, it would be having a third keyword specific to a person, organization or establishment and they still would have had a claim. So they won’t be able to prevent another Himalayan Books Nepal, Himalayan Books New York or Himalayan Books Calcutta from functioning.

*One fine example of two eminent lawyers fighting for and against a geographic domain name was the Minnesota Lawyer magazine owned by the Dolan Publishing Company fighting against a Minnesota lawyer Aaron Hall, sending him a cease and desist letter to stop using his Minnesota Lawyer Dot Com website and domain name. They asked him to cease ‘use of ‘Minnesota Lawyer’ in connection with online or printed publications in the legal field and refrain from publishing legal articles and information on Minnesota Lawyer Dot Com. They expressed their concern as: ‘Your use of ‘Minnesota Lawyer’ in this manner creates the false appearance of an association, affiliation or connection between you and your activities and Dolan, the Minnesota Lawyer trademark and Dolan’s goods and services. Dolan is concerned that such use is likely to cause confusion, cause mistake, and/or deceive consumers into believing that Dolan sponsors, endorses, supports or is otherwise affiliated with you and your activities’.

*Aaron Hall himself was an attorney experienced in trademark and internet law and blog law and a domainer who owned more than 400 domains. His articles on Blog-Law/Copyright/Trademark are noted and unique in the field. He responded that ‘Dolan does not that have a monopoly on the words ‘Minnesota lawyer’, his use of ‘Minnesota Lawyer’ was merely descriptive of his location and profession, and every lawyer in Minnesota can lawfully use those terms in the title of their website or domain name’.

*Summing up his observations on this and other past experiences, Mr. Hall stated that this is a national problem. ‘This is about the rights of small website owners. This situation exemplifies the threat to website owners (across the United States). Often small website owners give up their website after being intimidated and threatened by large corporations. I have represented many small business owners in disputes over a website with a generic or descriptive name. Many small business owners don’t know what to do when they get a cease and desist letter, so unfortunately, they make a mistake like giving up the website or selling it for below market rates. The law is often unclear in this area, especially when it comes to new technologies like the Internet and domain names. This case could set an important precedence for small website owners facing similar threats.

(The Aaron Hall case was reported in detail on 27 October 2011 by Mr. Elliot Silver in his website Domain Investing Dot Com under the title ‘Can You Trademark a Geographic Domain Name?’)

*Place names are generally not given registration. People and companies who use place names in their copyrights and trademarks will have to spend a lot of time and money and man hours to keep that name to themselves in a world where other people are acutely aware of the common ownership of place names and conscious of a few obtaining such names illegally and through grafts. It is better to stay away from such names while registering goods and services. The officials who register such names are perfectly aware that by registering them they are giving their owners unfair advantages over competitors from that area or region and they justify this unlawfulness by accepting more money for a place name.

*But, still, your application for registration of a place name, i.e., a geographical indicator, may be considered for registration, if there is a specific reason for, the goods being (1) either qualified for a Geographical Index protection, or (2) such place name is completely arbitrary and will not cause confusion or unfair competition or (3) it is proved a reputation was built on by using that name for years ‘without there being any evidence of harm to competitors’.

*Place names are geographically descriptive terms (primary meaning) which are not subject to trademark protection unless it takes on a new meaning (secondary meaning) by identifying goods so closely associated with that particular source. For example, Darjeeling Tea, Aaaranmula Mirrors, Thanjavur Silk. For that it should be proved that by using that place name it would indicate that the good ‘originates in that place and ‘a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographic origin’ there.

*Geographical indicators are as commercially influential tools in market as trademarks as they identify a reputable source and guarantee quality of the good.

*Geographical names not only pinpoint the location of a place and distinguish one part of the earth’s surface from another; they also point to a particular civilization, culture and politics. And they also change with time, language, people and politics. The old Salisbury is now Harare in Zimbabwe. Moscow which was once St. Petersburg later became Leningrad under communist rule and was then reverted when communism collapsed. Madras became Chennai, Bombay became Mumbai and Calcutta became Kolkotta. In southernmost India Trivandrum became Thrivananthapuram, Calicut became Kozhikkodu, Thrichur became Thrissur, Alleppey became Alappuzha and Cochin became Kochi. Which one is the trade marker copyrighting, and in which language? Himalaya has a dozen names with a dozen peoples in a dozen countries. By copyrighting Himalayas, will they be copyrighting all? So, the only answer is, only a phonetic compilation can be copyrighted by anyone, at a time. If someone comes with a Chennai Rubber Factory, what will the famous Madras Rubber Factory manufacturing the MRF tyres do? Sue him and own Chennai also, claiming once copyrighted, all phonetic and other variations in all languages and all times and all countries are copyrighted? What will they who copyrighted Venice and Prague do when others come with Venezia in Italian and Praha in Czech? Did they copyright those too? Are such variations also covered in copyright, anticipating linguistic and political changes in advance? Or does the old city and mountains and river move to the new city, mountain and river with all those thousands of copyrights? What absurdity is that! Remember that they all are the same geographical indications. These names were all coined by endless generations through countless centuries. What right has puny little human creatures have to make them theirs, whose births were not even dreamed about when these beautiful names were being formed?

*So the culprits in this crime were traders, who acted through their governments represented in the World Trade Organization.

‘How times are altered, trade’s unfeeling train,
Usurps the land and disposes the swain.’

It was Oliver Goldsmith who wrote this in his Deserted Village. How apt!

[To be continued]















Tuesday, November 5, 2019

173. Did the British thrust partition on India in 1947? Didn’t people also want it?

173

Did the British thrust partition on India in 1947? Didn’t people also want it?

P. S. Remesh Chandran

Editor, Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum


Article Title Image 1 By . Graphics: Adobe SP.

1

The partition of India in 1947 after independence was not thrust upon the people of India by the British. There were strong factions- Hindu and Muslim- working inside India then, demanding formation of a Hindu-dominant nation in India and a Muslim-dominant nation in Pakistan. Only a few leaders and people wanted India to remain undivided and from records we know who they were. If all leaders and people of India wanted India to remain independent, secular and undivided, no one including the British would have been able to divide India into two. Even after 72 years, debased national leaders are making hate speeches. Guess how strong this mentality would have been at the time when it was decided that the British would leave, leaving India to its own destiny. So India became two nations. When Hindu leaders make hate speeches, the Muslims would feel insecure under them and want a separate Muslim state for them. That was what happened in 1947. After the withdrawal of the Indian National Congress from the political scene and the emergence of a Hindu Party, this hate mentality also is reemerging with double strength. Within a few years we will see what happens. 

2

The partition of India in 1947 was prompted by factional currents working in India. It was not just a political resolution arrived at by the British Parliament and Crown. Communal, religious and gender discrimination of every kind working in society through generations for decades, even centuries, pushed things towards the inevitable culmination of partition. These communal, religious and gender discrimination suppressed by the Free India’s administration for a time is now working again, more forceful and widespread than before, moving things towards an inevitable culmination in what? Since the installation of a Hindu government in India, hate speeches and hate actions are increasing many-fold and the government is apparently totally helpless in the front of this abominable development in India. They unleashed this Satan for agitating people for political gains and now they are unable to stop it, even hinder it. In 1947 there were a few intelligent and magnificent national leaders who also had a hold over international matters to control this hate movement and finally harness it. But now there are no such intelligent and magnificent national leaders who have a say in international politics and can control this new hate movement. The only person prominent in global politics and who whole heartedly supported this new hate movement in India by all means- the U. S. President- is facing impeachment proceedings in America. 

3

Since the partition in 1947 of India into two countries, India has no rights over the land or people in Pakistan nor has Pakistan any rights over India. The partition was final, and binding to both parties. None of these countries are bound to accept refugees from the other country for whatever reason, legally. The gist of the presently ongoing hate speeches in India is that if dissatisfied with a Hindu rule, Muslims can go to Pakistan anytime. Not a few Hindu political leaders and ministers have already hinted this and are continuing repeating this threat unchecked. Neither the India government nor the Supreme Court of India has taken any legal action against these leaders and cabinet ministers on account of these threats. So the general consensus among Hindu politicians is that if forced enough the Muslims will go to Pakistan and India will become a country free of Muslims. 

4

It is only a dream that Pakistan would accept the Muslim population of India if conditions in India worsen and these people are forced to flee. Just like India declined to accept refugees from Bangladesh and Burma, Pakistan can, and will, decline to accept refugees from India. Bangladesh was forced to accept its refugees back from India. In a similar way, if things come to that, India too will be forced to accept refugees from India back from whichever countries they flee to. Suppose the state of affairs in India moves towards conditions akin to partition, this means that Pakistan is not obliged to accept Muslim refugees from India as other Muslim countries in the world like Malaysia, Iran or Saudi Arabia also aren’t, because these Muslims aren’t their citizens but India’s. 

5

When the Rohingyan Muslims from Burma were illegally immigrating to India, India tried to prevent it, by saying these militant fighters who have fought long with the Burmese government would be a security risk to India and that they would unbalance the ethnic position in the Hindu-minority Jammu-Kashmir where they settled in large numbers. India refused to accept these refugees but they raised the Right Against Expulsion law in the Supreme Court of India. Anyway the settlement of these refugees in Kahmir was one of the prime factors which eventually led the pro-Hinduist BJP regime in India to bifurcating Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan will raise this same ‘threat to national security’ issue to prevent Indian Muslim refugees entering their country if and when things come to that. 

6

So the end result would be splitting India again or imposing German-style concentration camps and mass murder chambers which the world won’t wait to see or allow for any reason. With every kind of weapons in stock at disposal, the world will not just stand and watch. Do you know why atom bombs were detonated in the Second World War in Japan which country was already sending out envoys to the neutral Switzerland as feelers for peace agreements? Entering mainland Japan and defeating that country, it was estimated, would have cost 10 million American soldiers’ lives. So they decided to make it cheap and destroy Japan through atomic bombs which were easier. If ever India creates a problem of Muslims fleeing India and becoming refugees in other countries, these other countries- all Muslim Christian and Communist countries- will wait only till all Muslims have fled India. 

And do not anyone think about and find solace in the prospect of Pakistan too splitting into two again like India in a nearby future. There is not such prospect in the horizon with their Chinese affiliation.



Article Title Image 2 By . Graphics: Adobe SP.
 

More English articles by the author at:
http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/
 

Malayalam articles by the author at:
http://sahyadrimalayalam.blogspot.in/
 

More political article by the author here:
http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/p/list-of-political-articles.html

  
About the Author P. S. Remesh Chandran:


Editor of Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum. Author of several books in English and in Malayalam. And also author of Swan: The Intelligent Picture Book. Born and brought up in the beautiful village of Nanniyode in the Sahya Mountain Valley in Trivandrum, in Kerala. Father British Council trained English teacher and Mother University educated. Matriculation with distinction and Pre Degree Studies in Science with National Merit Scholarship. Discontinued Diploma studies in Electronics and entered politics. Unmarried and single.

Face Book: https://www.facebook.com/psremeshchandra.trivandrum
Twitter: https://twitter.com/PSRemeshChandra
You Tube: http://www.youtube.com/user/bloombooks/videos
Blog: http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/
Site: https://sites.google.com/site/timeuponmywindowsill/
E-Mail: bloombookstvm@gmail.com

Post: P. S. Remesh Chandran, Editor, Sahyadri Books, Trivandrum, Padmalayam, Nanniyode, Pacha Post, Trivandrum- 695562, Kerala State, South India.

Tags:


Partition Of India, India Politics, Refugees In India, Hindu Party Politics Government, Jammu Kashmir, Hate Speeches Movement, India Pakistan Bangladesh, Hindu Muslim Harmony, WW2, Atom Bombing Japan, // Rohingyan Muslims, Right Against Expulsion, Muslim Problem In India,

First Published on: 29 October 2019

172. Why shoot Maoists and at the same time receive the greatest Maoist in the world as State Guest in India?

172

Why shoot Maoists and at the same time receive the greatest Maoist in the world as State Guest in India?

P. S. Remesh Chandran

Editor, Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum


Article Title Image 1 By . Graphics: Adobe SP.

1

Who is the greatest Maoist in the world now? It is the Chinese President. In which country is Marxist Maoism the official ideology? It is in the People's Republic of China. So the greatest Maoist in the world was received as State Guest by the Indian Prime Minister at Chennai and lived with him for two days in October 2019. What message was the Prime Minister giving to the citizens of India- to live co-existing with Maoists? Did anyone in India, including the Communist Party of India (Marxist), demand that this Chinese Maoist in India shall be arrested? Remember that hosting a Maoist in one’s house or premises is a crime warranting shooting at sight in India and especially Kerala in the eyes of the central and the state authorities. From Tamil Nadu this Chinese Maoist went straight to Nepal to confer with the Maoist Mr. Prachandta who rules Nepal and declared that the People’s Republic of China will give a Rs. 3500 crores financial aid to Nepal. What does the government of Kerala, its ruling Marxist Party and its police forces have to say on this? 

2

The Kerala government in 2019 October last supposedly ‘encountered’ Maoists in the Wayanadu forests and killed them through its Thunder Force police force. It was subsequently proved by witnesses, people and leaders of other political parties before the press that there was no such encounter and the police force was just surrounding them, shooting at them and killing them who were just eating food inside a temporary shack. The Kerala government, closely following the foot steps of the Hindu party in the centre, is making loud noise in the name of Maoism, conveniently forgetting the fact that they are a Marxist government at least in name. The people of Kerala- ten thousands among them- know well what Socialism, Communism, Marxism, Leninism and Maoism are and can compare and evaluate if the Communist Party of India (bracket) Marxist has any isms left in its political line. The only people in India who cannot differentiate between these political terms are the leaders, members and supporters of the Communist Party of India (bracket) Marxist. If Maoists are all dangerous, then why did the Indian Prime Minister live with the greatest one among them for two days and ask inter-people relations to be developed? Did he mean India should whole-heartedly embrace Chinese Maoists and tolerate Maoism? Or did he actually mean his example is one never to be followed in practical life by anyone in India like almost all of his other examples are? If the Indian authorities cannot tolerate Maoism, then why did they give wrong messages to people? 

3

A number of people in Kerala- all close followers of the ruling Marxist party in Kerala- immediately after this ‘encounter killing’ incident came up with explanations that the police were shooting in self defense. We will think they all hold the post of the Director Generals of Police in Kerala to know about the details immediately after this soon. How did they know for certain what went on there at the scene of action until a coroner stated it in record and a court of law validated it? Or were they witnesses there at the time these ‘encounter killings’ were happening? Then they must be ‘valuable witnesses’ for a court of law to determine whether those were deaths, killings or political murders. It is easier to say that ‘because they fired at us we fired back and killed them’. That is just what the Supreme Court of India warned against and condemned in earlier cases and punished police officers for. The Supreme Court even said being a Maoist is not a crime in India and all such alleged encounter killings should be brought for magisterial investigation within two weeks. The question is, did they come to us or did we go to them. Did they shoot at us coming to the seat of Government or did we go hunting for them in dark forests. It is not the first time that shooting and killing people claiming they were Maoists is happening in India and this won’t be the last. ‘Encounter killing’ is, as now everyone knows, protective clothing for deliberate killing for political reasons. 

4

One may ask if the present government administration in China isn’t an antithesis of communism. It is. The present Chinese government is the antithesis of the famous Chairman Mao’s ideologies whether they were right or wrong, it’s founding principles, just as the present Indian government is the antithesis of the famous Indian democracy, its founding principles. Anyway, both took their oaths while assuming offices in the name of the respective ideologies of Maoism and Secular Democracy. In betraying these ideologies, both became identical bullocks to be harnessed under the same yoke. 

5

This whole deal is full of contradictions. The India government that hunts native Maoists receives foreign Maoists in India as state guests. The people who give shelter to Maoists in their homes are arrested and charge-sheeted by the Indian Police in most states but the Prime Minister hosts and lives with Maoist Supremos for two days in Tamil Nadu is not. The Chinese President swears in in office in the name of Maoist Communism but in his attitudes and actions he is a thorough capitalist. The Indian Prime Minister swears in in office in the name of democratic secularism but under his rule thousands of civilians are put in prisons without explicit reasons or any reasons and non-Hindus are hunted and killed everyday and he is a thorough undemocratic person. The Maoists in India pledge to a Mao-style communism and socialism but turn to drug trafficking and looting villages for funds and amassing wealth which were not his way. But one cannot fail to see the general ‘killing tendency’ spreading in India. The killing of Maoists cannot be separated from killing non-Hindus, killing citizens who do not call Rama, killing people who carry cow’s meat, etc, etc. It’s a general killing tendency that is spreading in India. Those who view handle and treat killing Maoists separately, compartmentally, are just fools who cannot see well in daylight. Seeing only the nail in close up, they fail to see the elephant in whole. 

6

A million times more bullets are fired by the Chinese People’s Army at Indians. Still their Supreme Leader is given royal reception by the Government of India. Why do the Marxists in India pretend they do not see this and elaborate on this? Their sister communist party and the original- The Communist Party of India- has already condemned these murders clothed as ‘encounter killings. Why does the Communist Party of India (Marxist) remain hideously silent? Had this Supreme Maoist of China come to Kerala during his Indian visit, would the Marxist Kerala Chief Minister have condemned him or gone to receive him? What would the Police Forces have done, shoot him or saluted him? My dear friend, the real fact is, the Maoists in India do not have ruling power in India and that is why they are shot in ‘encounter shootings’ the farce behind which the Supreme Court trials exposed and punished. That is why the Maoists who have ruling power in China are welcomed and received as state guests in India by the Hindu party BJP in the centre and the Marxist leaders in the states alike who meanwhile hunt Maoists in India. Do not ever forget that if the Maoists in Nepal ever come to Kerala on official tours, the Marxist Chief Minister of Kerala would receive and embrace them. Recently they did come to Kerala for partaking in the Communist Party Birth Centenary Celebrations and what else did the Marxists of Kerala do except embracing them? The (Marxists) of Kerala worship Dr. Ernesto Che Guevara and exhibit his photos everywhere and anywhere possible but does this mean they are pledged to carrying out armed revolutions against governments like him? How do they gauge one is a Maoist? If you judge one a Maoist from words written in social media, you are a very poor judge and knows nothing about Communism, Marxism, Leninism or Maoism. Words do not make a Maoist, like your words and pose do not make you a Marxist: it is actions. And, protecting the human rights of Maoists isn’t Maoism; it’s Humanitarianism.


Article Title Image 2 By . Graphics: Adobe SP.
 

More English articles by the author at:
http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/
 

Malayalam articles by the author at:
http://sahyadrimalayalam.blogspot.in/
 

More political article by the author here:
http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/p/list-of-political-articles.html

  
About the Author P. S. Remesh Chandran:


Editor of Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum. Author of several books in English and in Malayalam. And also author of Swan: The Intelligent Picture Book. Born and brought up in the beautiful village of Nanniyode in the Sahya Mountain Valley in Trivandrum, in Kerala. Father British Council trained English teacher and Mother University educated. Matriculation with distinction and Pre Degree Studies in Science with National Merit Scholarship. Discontinued Diploma studies in Electronics and entered politics. Unmarried and single.

Face Book: https://www.facebook.com/psremeshchandra.trivandrum
Twitter: https://twitter.com/PSRemeshChandra
You Tube: http://www.youtube.com/user/bloombooks/videos
Blog: http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/
Site: https://sites.google.com/site/timeuponmywindowsill/
E-Mail: bloombookstvm@gmail.com

Post: P. S. Remesh Chandran, Editor, Sahyadri Books, Trivandrum, Padmalayam, Nanniyode, Pacha Post, Trivandrum- 695562, Kerala State, South India.

Tags:


Communism Socialism Marxism Leninism Maoism, Communist Party Of India, Nepal China India Maoists, Political Encounter Killings, Killing Tendency India, Maoist Hunt, Secular Democracy, Humanitarianism,

First Published on: 29 October 2019



171. Why BBC released this special broadcast on India’s glorious past now all of a sudden at this particular time?

171

Why BBC released this special broadcast on India’s glorious past now all of a sudden at this particular time?

P. S. Remesh Chandran
 

Editor, Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum

Article Title Image 1 By . Graphics: Adobe SP.

 

The Science Museum at South Kensington, London, UK, founded in 1857 exhibits invaluable articles in the history of science and regularly holds special exhibitions the entry to which are free. Recently they unveiled a new exhibition on India of historical objects belonging to India’s rich hidden scientific past, especially looking at ancient India’s achievements in mathematics, metallurgy and civil engineering. This exhibition covers several centuries of Indian history, from the ancient past of the Indus Valley Civilization to the 19th and the early 20th century developments, with relics from the time under the British Colonial Rule to show how colonial rule helped India develop science. The artifacts abruptly stop at the beginning of the 21st century, meaningfully.

The BBC World Service Discovery last on 8th October 2019 aired a science discovery news broadcast titled ‘India's Ancient Science’, covering the India exhibition at the Science Museum. Do you know why the BBC released this special 23 minutes issue on the glorious past of India now? While supposedly ‘rediscovering influential Indian ideas on mathematics, metallurgy and engineering’, it’s a political stunt. Read, or listen to, their words very very carefully. They issued it to stress that India has had a great past in ingenious science, technology, philosophy, literature and politics, but now India is being ruled by undereducated and uneducated morons, and India now has to borrow science and technology from other countries abroad and the people of India are neither alert nor bold enough to respond to this moronic and boorish regime as courageously as they even very recently in the middle of the 20th century forced the British out of India. Especially note these lines of theirs: ‘The past does matter, and it mattered especially a hundred years ago, as Indians fought to establish their independence from the British in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, their scientific history was a reminder, that if they could do such great things before, they could do them again now.’ It is common knowledge and everyone knows it. Then, why now? BBC knows well the attitude of the British people (not of their government) in their keenness and that of the Indian people in their resignedness towards India’s ‘democracy’ is changing. 

BBC Link to this broadcast: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/w3cstxng



Article Title Image 2 By . Graphics: Adobe SP.
 

More English articles by the author at:
http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/
 

Malayalam articles by the author at:
http://sahyadrimalayalam.blogspot.in/
 

More political article by the author here:
http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/p/list-of-political-articles.html

  
About the Author P. S. Remesh Chandran:


Editor of Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum. Author of several books in English and in Malayalam. And also author of Swan: The Intelligent Picture Book. Born and brought up in the beautiful village of Nanniyode in the Sahya Mountain Valley in Trivandrum, in Kerala. Father British Council trained English teacher and Mother University educated. Matriculation with distinction and Pre Degree Studies in Science with National Merit Scholarship. Discontinued Diploma studies in Electronics and entered politics. Unmarried and single.

Face Book: https://www.facebook.com/psremeshchandra.trivandrum
Twitter: https://twitter.com/PSRemeshChandra
You Tube: http://www.youtube.com/user/bloombooks/videos
Blog: http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/
Site: https://sites.google.com/site/timeuponmywindowsill/
E-Mail: bloombookstvm@gmail.com

Post: P. S. Remesh Chandran, Editor, Sahyadri Books, Trivandrum, Padmalayam, Nanniyode, Pacha Post, Trivandrum- 695562, Kerala State, South India.

Tags:

 
Indian Democracy, India News, India Politics, 


First Published on: 19 October 2019



170. What should Mr. Rahul Gandhi do- show his neck for more betrayal from Communist parties, regional parties, and his own partymen?

170

What should Mr. Rahul Gandhi do- show his neck for more betrayal from Communist parties, regional parties, and his own partymen?

P. S. Remesh Chandran


Editor, Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum

Article Title Image 1 By . Graphics: Adobe SP.


The Indian National Congress’ President and the Communist Party of India (Marxist)’s General Secretary did their best before the 2019 Parliament Elections to convince Marxists in the states including Kerala that a Congress-Marxist Alliance at the national level is a must and is what the time demands to thoroughly defeat BJP, but what did the Marxists in Kerala under the leadership of Mr. Pinarayi Vijayan and Mr. Kodiyeri Balakrishnan do? They laughed out their General Secretary’s option and contested the elections against Congress! Congress was willing to share eight seats with them but they opposed Congress and ended in winning only one seat in Kerala. The Communist Party of India which was the first to argue for a Congress-Communist Alliance and which spent thousands of eloquent hours to elaborate on the need for such a political alliance, when the elections came, turned 180 degrees and put up their candidate against Mr. Rahul Gandhi in Wayanadu! So, Mr. Rahul Gandhi perfectly well understands what betrayal is, especially betrayal by the Communist parties of India. These two Communist parties were not even willing to accept that Congress’ massive defeat was entirely due to election manipulations by the BJP and Reliance. Finding it not pleasant to antagonize Reliance, they sought other explanations for Congress’ defeat. They still do. What should Mr. Rahul Gandhi do- show his neck for more betrayal from these two Communist parties, other regional parties, and his own partymen? In the wake of state elections in October 2019 it is alleged by these Communist parties and the Congress itself that he is nowhere to be seen and is supposed to have gone abroad for something personal. It is also known that all opposition political parties in India are boycotting the local body elections in Kashmir since almost all opposition leaders are put in jail by BJP. Betrayers need no leaders; it’s natural. Let him go somewhere- anywhere- and lick his wounds. He is young and he has time. If he pulls out of Congress’ leadership now, it will be the greatest blow to the two Communist parties, because from then onwards it will be their sole responsibility fighting and defeating BJP. Thus these two Communist parties will be forced to stop secretly supporting BJP and doing everything for its victory, but antagonize BJP and come in the open fighting them.
 
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More English articles by the author at:
http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/
 

Malayalam articles by the author at:
http://sahyadrimalayalam.blogspot.in/
 

More political article by the author here:
http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/p/list-of-political-articles.html

  
About the Author P. S. Remesh Chandran:


Editor of Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum. Author of several books in English and in Malayalam. And also author of Swan: The Intelligent Picture Book. Born and brought up in the beautiful village of Nanniyode in the Sahya Mountain Valley in Trivandrum, in Kerala. Father British Council trained English teacher and Mother University educated. Matriculation with distinction and Pre Degree Studies in Science with National Merit Scholarship. Discontinued Diploma studies in Electronics and entered politics. Unmarried and single.

Face Book: https://www.facebook.com/psremeshchandra.trivandrum
Twitter: https://twitter.com/PSRemeshChandra
You Tube: http://www.youtube.com/user/bloombooks/videos
Blog: http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/
Site: https://sites.google.com/site/timeuponmywindowsill/
E-Mail: bloombookstvm@gmail.com

Post: P. S. Remesh Chandran, Editor, Sahyadri Books, Trivandrum, Padmalayam, Nanniyode, Pacha Post, Trivandrum- 695562, Kerala State, South India.

Tags:

 
Indian Democracy, India News, India Politics, Indian National Congress, Communist Party Of India,

First Published in: October 2019


  

Saturday, October 5, 2019

169. Young And Old. Charles Kingsley Poem Appreciation By P S Remesh Chandran


169

Young And Old. Charles Kingsley Poem Appreciation

P. S. Remesh Chandran

Editor, Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum


01. Article Title Image By . Graphics: Adobe SP.

Charles Kingsley was a nineteenth century English religious worker who wrote novels and poems. He inspired people to right living and founded the Christian Socialist Movement to promote his ideals. In his poem ‘Young And Old’ he describes the difference in the outlooks of the young people and the old people towards the world. The poem is presented in the form of an old man addressing a little boy, making clear to him how old age changes our outlook, brilliantly portraying the fine contrasting pictures of youth and old age. 

The same world looks lovely and young to a young man and dreary and dead to an old man.

 02. Carl Frederik Aagaard 1880 Lodge on Lake Como.

The world appears lovely, lusty and active to a young man who is teeming with energy, zeal and interest. Because he is young, the world also appears young and living to him. He will find the everyway inviting to lead a thrilling life in it. But the same world would not appear the same to an old man. The same world would appear dull, dreary and dead and inactive to an old man who has spent all the energies in his life. Because his days are over he will take it the world’s day are also over. 

Exaggeration and enlargement of ideas and vision is natural and common to people young.

  03. Hans Andreas Dahl 1900 Joyous Lass.

When we are young, the world also appears young in our eyes, though it is already millions of years old. Even old trees would appear to be young and green. That ugly flying bird Goose would appear to be like a Swan, the most beautiful bird in the world. Even an ordinary girl with no mentionable virtues would seem like a queen- proud, lovely and regal in her attitudes and behaviour. Exaggeration and enlargement of ideas and vision is natural and common to all people when they are in the young age. But it is exactly the time to call for one’s riding boots and horse and go round the world to see things and places.

 04. Barend Cornelis Koekkoek 1835 Panoramic Summer Landscape With Travellers And Castle Ruins.

Young blood should not remain stagnant and still like water in a pool. A stagnant pool would soon become polluted; a rolling stone gathers no moss. Young blood must have its course and so, must be flowing and kinetic. The poet reasons that every dog has its day and youth is the day of the dog to go seeing the world. He means that youth is that particular age of man that should be spent on sight-seeing, travel, romance and adventure. We do get an account of how the youth is and how it should be from the poem. 

The blessings of old age when a person has to creep back home to his remaining relatives.

 05. Alexei Kondratyevich Savrasov 1868 Early Spring In High Water.

In old age one has to withdraw oneself from all excitement, enjoyment and adventure that he has been indulging himself in throughout his young years. In that age the world would automatically appear to be old in the worn-out eyes of the old man. The trees which once looked evergreen would now look withered and brown. The once-interesting sports of the young age would now appear to be stale and non-interesting. The wheels of life have already run down and now one has to ‘creep back home’ for he won’t no more be able walk as easily on his legs as before. When he reaches that age he should return and stay at home among the equally spent and maimed members in his family. 

Human mind in old age will yearn for images common to both young and old ages- landmarks to fix one’s relative position in both ages.

 06. Markus Pernhart 1873 Winter.

There had certainly been many things in the world which demanded his constant attention and engagement and he certainly had spent his time to its fill on those things. Now nothing remains qualified and worthy enough in the outside world to receive his life-long love as before. Is there not at least one single thing in the world that remains common to the young years and also to the old years, out of which an old man can get the satisfaction and relief of shuttling between his feelings of young and old ages as if looking at a mirror?

 07. Antonio Smith 1874 Crepúsculo Marino.

Human mind in old age will yearn for such images, experiences, remembrances, and feelings, common to and shared by both ages- landmarks to fix one’s relative position in both ages. God is not that unkind. For, he grants the old man the blessing of finding at least one human face at least in his home which he loved when all the world was young and which is still there, ready to receive his love still now as before- that lovely worn-out face of his old woman of long years.

 08. Hermann Ottomar Herzog 1878 Florida Sunset.

[Written in March 1996 as a lecture to literature students]

First published on: 05 October 2019

 
___________________________
Pictures Courtesy: Wikimedia Commons
___________________________

Image Credits:


01. Article Title Image By . Graphics: Adobe SP.
02. Carl Frederik Aagaard 1880 Lodge on Lake Como.
03. Hans Andreas Dahl 1900 Joyous Lass.
04. Barend Cornelis Koekkoek 1835 Panoramic Summer Landscape With Travellers And Castle Ruins.
05. Alexei Kondratyevich Savrasov 1868 Early Spring In High Water.
06. Markus Pernhart 1873 Winter.
07. Antonio Smith 1874 Crepúsculo Marino.
08. Hermann Ottomar Herzog 1878 Florida Sunset.
09. Author Profile Of P S Remesh Chandran By Sahyadri Archives.


About the Author P. S. Remesh Chandran:


09. Author Profile Of P S Remesh Chandran By Sahyadri Archives.

Editor of Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum. Author of several books in English and in Malayalam. And also author of Swan: The Intelligent Picture Book. Born and brought up in the beautiful village of Nanniyode in the Sahya Mountain Valley in Trivandrum, in Kerala. Father British Council trained English teacher and Mother University educated. Matriculation with distinction and Pre Degree Studies in Science with National Merit Scholarship. Discontinued Diploma studies in Electronics and entered politics. Unmarried and single.

Face Book: https://www.facebook.com/psremeshchandra.trivandrum
Twitter: https://twitter.com/PSRemeshChandra
You Tube: http://www.youtube.com/user/bloombooks/videos
Blog: http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/
Site: https://sites.google.com/site/timeuponmywindowsill/
E-Mail: bloombookstvm@gmail.com

Post: P. S. Remesh Chandran, Editor, Sahyadri Books, Trivandrum, Padmalayam, Nanniyode, Pacha Post, Trivandrum- 695562, Kerala State, South India.

Tags:


Charles Kingsley, 19th Century Novelists Poets, Young And Old, Right Living, Young Blood, Ideas And Vision, Blessings Of Old Age, Free Student Notes, English Essays Articles Literature, Ageing,




Friday, October 4, 2019

168. Never Never Nest. Cedric Mount Play Reintroduced By P S Remesh Chandran

168

Never Never Nest. Cedric Mount Play Reintroduced

P. S. Remesh Chandran

Editor, Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum


01. Article Title Image By . Graphics: Adobe SP.

02. Breinig & Bachman Tailors Clothiers Pennsylvania 1895 New Building Closed In 1920 Due To Recession.

Aero planes can be purchased under installment schemes. Large airline companies have been formed this way and when repayments failed whole fleets have been grounded and confiscated by their financiers. Satellites, ships and rockets can be purchased this way and even children born. Nowadays people can purchase anything from a car to hospital treatment through installment schemes. Now banks and loan sharks are there ready, to give money to anyone for purchasing almost everything. But till the installments are completed, the property will not be ours. The title of the play means that neither will an installment house ever become our own till the installments are over nor will the installments ever end during our lifetime.
 
1. INSTALLMENT SCHEMES AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION OF 1929:

Humans are like birds, craving to build a nest somewhere, and once it is lost, wandering the world grieving homeless.



Cedric Mount’s play Never Never Nest is a satire on purchasing things under installment plans. Nest here means home, the last place to which all human birds return- an apt simile considering the fondness and affection and love these wandering birds who toil in the world for a living have for their permanent final resting places. They are like birds, always craving to build a nest somewhere, lay eggs and raise a family, and once it is lost, wandering through the world, grieving for the home. We do not know whether Cedric lost a home or got a home, but we must know how people value a home. The play is written against the background of the Great Depression of the 1920s which gripped the world, continued through years, and wrecked many industries and businesses, and the lives of people throughout the world. Even though the play is a very short one, the background is broad. That is what the playwright also meant- to open eyes to the background, which the world still dreads to remember. So in this article also, we will explore that dreadful period of recession more, considering certain aspects of the playwright’s life. 

Many things which now sell fast in the market were considered non-essential luxuries by people once.


  
03. 1926-Ford-Coupe Car On Installment.


A house, car, boat, children, family, doctor’s assistance, etc, are everyone’s dream or necessity. When these things cannot be bought due to lack of money, people borrow. In the past, if these things could not be bought, people learned to live without them. Many things which now sell fast in the market were considered once non-essential luxuries by people. Conservative-minded people did not even dare to think about borrowing money for purchasing any of these things. If people wanted to possess these things, they saved money penny by penny or did buy them from the fortune they sure had to spend. Such social convictions and guard were what prevented people from purchasing things on credit and later falling into debt in the past centuries. 

Since the buying power of people will not increase dramatically, production companies devised this system of ‘purchasing now and paying later in installments’.


  
04. A 1920 Studebaker Car On Installment.


Production volume brings down production costs in industries. When greater production and sale of products can be assured, market prices will normally come down and more people will become able to purchase these products. Since the buying power of people will not increase dramatically, production companies in the beginning of the 20th century devised this innovative system of ‘purchasing now and paying later in installments’. Production quantity of ovens, radios, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, gramophones, pianos, refrigerators and cars increased, their market prices came down, and people began to purchase them under installment plans. Soon these things became no more luxuries. Installment plans of manufacturers began to be taken for granted by people which continues to be so even today. Sales multiplied and the fact is things became affordable. 

Mr. Henry Ford remained obstinate to the idea of selling his motor cars in installments.


  
05. A Camera On Installment.


One of the most conservative industrialists of those times was Mr. Henry Ford. He was a very considerate and generous person who also cared to run the Ford Grocery Stores on the side for exclusively helping his factory workers in Detroit. He remained obstinate to the idea of selling his motor cars to people in installments. He even refused part credit even to his dealers. Finally even he too succumbed to the temptation and the changing marketing trends in the car industry and began to give cars on installment plans. Ford Weekly Purchase Plan allowed people to own a brand new car on an initial down payment and the rest was to be paid in weekly installments, saving from their family budgets. 

The atmosphere in those times was filled with questions addressed to women and they finally succumbed.

 
Housewives were the primary targets the manufacturers aimed at. They were asked in advertisements and by company representatives in person, why they paid rent when they could buy a house in installment scheme and live in one of their own, with the installment amount equaling the rent amount. Why labour in their kitchen when they could have an oven? Why manually labour on washing and drying when they could have a Laundromat in easy terms? Why walk when they could drive brand new cars which others in their street with even lower incomes own? Why go to photographer’s studio for pictures when they could possess their own cameras and take pictures at their leisure, repaying with the exact sum they spend on photographers? Why not purchase Mark Twine’s Complete Works and pay in portions with the money they spend for library memberships? Why not clothe their husbands and themselves decently with installment purchase and make up the expenditure by infiltrating higher social circles of esteem early, rise in esteem and get hold of the resultant lucrative job opportunities? The atmosphere in those times was filled with questions like these addressed to women and they finally succumbed. 

Some sold their cooking oven for the down payment for purchasing refrigerator in installments.


   
06. Mark Twain Books On Installment.


People very much like to use new utensils and appliances in their homes. Even where the old ones efficiently work, they will wish for brand new ones using which is a pleasure. Using new appliances saves the money spent on repairing the old ones. Sometimes, new appliances can be bought with the money spent on repairs of old ones for two or three years. Using new articles will also most often reduce the cost of operation and maintenance, like a new radio or television using the latest technology consumes less electricity. Readymade food will save time spent on cooking. So on and so on were the many arguments carried on my installment scheme managers before house-hold women in the 1920s. It was a dam burst of arguments from installment managers to household women. So, some sold their cooking oven for the down payment for purchasing refrigerator in installments. We needn’t wonder how they managed cooking in their houses without ovens; they purchased brand new ovens simultaneously in installments. 

Finally installments came to be paid not from savings but from earnings, all earnings went to marketers, and there was no money for milk, food, groceries and hospital.

 
In the olden days, i.e., till the advent of the twentieth century, people purchased these things out of their savings, taking its time. So these people were secure in life financially. But now, i.e., after the 1890s, after the advent of the installment age, all savings were spent to pay installments on things already purchased, gradually eating into money reserves, and finally getting people to the position that installments were to be paid not from savings but from earnings. All earnings went to marketers and sellers and there was no money left to pay for milk, food, groceries and hospital treatment. Every agreement which accompanied an installment sale had small prints which the purchaser ignored to read but which invariably stipulated that the article belonged to the seller until paid for in full. When default in repayments occurred, the things were confiscated without refund of whatever amounts were already paid, the whole amount being adjusted against the use of the article. To avoid this confiscation, other assets were sold to pay the defaults and this vicious circle engulfed the people of the 1920s and 30s. 

Thousands and thousands of families vanished without a trace. No one knows where they went.


  
07. Clothes On Installment.


Thus Pianos and Kelvinators found their way into poor man’s homes this way. They all hoped they could repay this debt out of their earnings and savings. But they did not think that tomorrow their wages may plummet, or that they may loose jobs. Nor did they expect something like the stock market crash of 1929. Economic depression engulfed the world for the next several years. Unemployment increased, incomes plummeted down and those who had debts became bankrupted. Things sold in installments were confiscated by the sellers and sold in auction, which included houses and home utensils. People simply took to the streets with no possessions at all. Only those people who were reluctant and conservative enough not to buy things without saving enough money and paying in full escaped from debts and survived this depression. Thousands and thousands of families vanished without a trace. No one knows where they went. It was proved plainly that hard times ahead should also be anticipated when we buy things in advance, agreeing to pay for them later. 

2. THE PLAY NEVER NEVER NEST:

Had she written Two thousand Pounds on the cheque instead of Two hundred Pounds?

 
Jack and Jill in the play own a car, a house, a piano and a radiogram, all purchased on installment plan. One day, Aunt Jain is visiting them. She is surprised to see that the couple is leading a very luxurious life, with all modern comforts. In her knowledge, knowing their background, they can never live that way. She asked them how they could live in such luxury with all those amenities. She is told that it was to her that they owed all this luxury. She wonders how that could happen. She had given them a wedding present of only Two hundred Pounds. How can they purchase all these things with just Two hundred Pounds? Then she began to worry. Had she by mistake written Two thousands Pounds on the cheque instead of Two hundred Pounds? Then she was told by Jack that everything was purchased on the installment plan. Why should one be a tenant who pays rent for a house when one can be the owner of one? 

Pay off the doctor’s bills so that at least the child would be theirs.

But Aunt Jain does not like the smell of things. She refuses to neither sit on the furniture in the house nor travel in Jack’s car. How can one do it decently when their prices have not been paid for fully? Cash down, is her motto. She advises the young couple also to follow her motto. Before returning, she handed Jill a cheque and asked her to pay off any one single bill fully, so that at least one article in the house would really belong to them. Jill is only wise to follow the advice. She paid the doctor’s bills completely so that the child at least would really be theirs. Their child also was born in the installment plan since the hospital charges for the delivery also were paid in the installment plan. 

The three main elements in the play.


  
08. Mr. Henry Ford's Views On Installment. From The Henry Ford Org.


The conservative attitude of a few people who always remain suspicious of new discoveries and marketing plans in the world, the easiness with which people from the working class fall into the ruthless greed of market-commercialism and consumerism, and what happens to people who passes through turbulent times of general impoverishment, are the three elements incorporated in the play. The fact is the playwright Cedric also vanished without a trace in such a turbulent time of general impoverishment. Can a very good writer who is fairly better known in social circles and the publishing field totally vanish with a family if he had any without leaving a trace? 

3. WHAT HAPPENED TO CEDRIC MOUNT, THE AUTHOR, IN THOSE TIMES?

Those who recovered from the Great Depression found themselves in the midst of the First World War.

 
Cedric Mount’s plays were almost all published in London in the 1930s. We know the ten years from 1929 to 1939 were the period of the Great Depression from which most people in most countries never recovered. Even those who were persevering to rise up again from that crushing blow found themselves to be in the midst of the Second World War, another mountain of havoc that fell upon the people of the world. The people who lived in those times could not purchase many things which they so much needed for want of money. Wreck of businesses, industries and agriculture made millions of people take the beggar’s bowl. Unemployment reduced families to nothingness. So many families vanished from the face of the earth. Those who borrowed could not repay and all their assets were sold in auction. The life of everyone who had debts was lost for ever. Only those who were moderate in spending or had a fortune to spend survived that period of hell. 

Did he also vanish with those thousands sucked into the vortex of that economic depression?


  
09. Hot Water Bath On Installment.


It was at the time of the culmination of this havoc that Cedric Mount’s play Never Never Nest was written. Even though Cedric’s plays were published in print and are still available to read, not a piece of his biographical information is available now, wherever we search in including the information repositories like the American Library of Congress, Wikipedia or any other data base in the Internet. How this happened is yet to be explained. We only know that besides Never Never Nest, he also wrote plays like Twentieth Century Lullaby (1935), Cavalcade of Christmas (1935), The Long and the Short of It (1938), Jonah: A Biblical Play, Dirge without Dole and Such Sweet Sorrow. Did he also vanish with those thousands of human beings, sucked into the vortex of that economic depression? 

4. THE GOOD AND THE BAD OF INSTALLMENT SCHEMES.

Businesses and industries which are on the brink of ruin survive, come back and flourish through installment sales.

 
Many people look at installment buying as a sin. Compared to direct cash sales, it has had many benefits and advantages in the industrial, business and consumer fields. Things can be enjoyed and used even before paying for them. Because amounts have to be paid each month or each week, people who otherwise are not in the habit of saving money will become healthily thrifty. If controlled to the limit of repayment period not exceeding the saleable time or even the life time of a product, it will not cause undue inflation and wreck the economy. Since demand increases, production and supply will increase proportionately, bringing down cost. Even though interest for financing will have to be borne by purchasers, they will be more than compensated for by the reduction in prices. Businesses and industries which are on the brink of ruin survive, come back and flourish. Generation of jobs and eradication of unemployment is a result. Things which only could be enjoyed by the rich, aristocrats and the privileged classes could be accessible to all, eliminating effectively class distinctions through consumerism. Industries and businesses in countries like America survived and prospered solely due to introducing installment system for sales. If this system is removed, their economy may even suddenly collapse. 

Mortgaging more than one third of future earnings leads to stillness in industry and business and loss of purchasing power of the working class.


  
10. Typewriter On Installment.


Automobiles, homes, household equipments, furniture, ornamental items, pleasure items and clothes are the major items, in the decreasing order of their percentages, which people buy under various installment schemes. Mortgaging future earnings and salaries is what is actually going on in the name of installment schemes. Financial experts warn that mortgaging more than one third of future earnings will ultimately lead to stillness and collapse in industry and business, for it would lead to loss of purchasing power of the working class eventually. Saving money, keeping it in bank and buying things when there is enough money is the method they advise, but it is not practical because the whole society cannot be taught and trained to be thrifty and it is also not in the human nature to be thrifty. 

More than 30 % of all purchases are under installment and 2800 million dollars outstand as installment debt any time in America alone.

 
Automobiles, television sets, home furniture, washing machines, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, jewellery, clothing and homes are the major installment purchases in the world. Many of these things may be pointed out as unnecessary luxuries by many, but not all people will agree. ‘More than 30 % of all things purchased in this world are under installment plans. 2800 million dollars outstand as installment debt any time in America alone.’ Banks have entire departments and fleets of financial officers for dealing with this scheme alone. Large financing companies exist for this sole purpose. People’s wish for enjoying things before paying for them supports these huge companies, leading to trillions of dollars of business. Some economists consider this scheme as systematic exploitation of the working class, leading most of them to being in debt in their old age or when earnings and salaries fall. In their estimate unnecessary over-production resulting from industrial greed is what results in this mortgaging of mankind. 

This situation of depression, wreckage and collapse occur periodically, perhaps in every twenty years as a cycle.


  
11. Washer & Dryer On Installment.


When repayments faltered and articles were confiscated, retailers sold them in auction, flooding the market with second hand articles, constricting normal market and toning production. Manufacturers suffered nothing except shrinking of their markets. It was retailers who were affected badly. Manufacturers came up with relief measures and intervened, only because for fear of loosing distribution networks and sales channels. Loss of purchasing power of consumers made even confiscated items unsellable and many retailers had to close shops permanently. It has been predicted that because of the inborn fallacy of this installment system, the situation of depression, ruin and caving in will periodically be repeated, most probably every twenty years as a cycle.


[First prepared in September 1990 as a lecture to literature students]

First published on:


___________________________
Pictures Courtesy: Wikimedia Commons
___________________________

Picture Credits:

01. Article Title Image By . Graphics: Adobe SP
02. Breinig & Bachman Tailors Clothiers Pennsylvania 1895 New Building Closed In 1920 Due To Recession
03. 1926-Ford-Coupe Car On Installment
04. A 1920 Studebaker Car On Installment
05. A Camera On Installment
06. Mark Twain Books On Installment
07. Clothes On Installment
08. Mr. Henry Ford's Views On Installment. From The Henry Ford Org
09. Hot Water Bath On Installment
10. Typewriter On Installment
11. Washer & Dryer On Installment
12. Author Profile of P S Remesh Chandran By Sahyadri Archives

About the Author P. S. Remesh Chandran:

10. Author Profile of P S Remesh Chandran By Sahyadri Archives.


Editor of Sahyadri Books & Bloom Books, Trivandrum. Author of several books in English and in Malayalam. And also author of Swan: The Intelligent Picture Book. Born and brought up in the beautiful village of Nanniyode in the Sahya Mountain Valley in Trivandrum, in Kerala. Father British Council trained English teacher and Mother University educated. Matriculation with distinction and Pre Degree Studies in Science with National Merit Scholarship. Discontinued Diploma studies in Electronics and entered politics. Unmarried and single.

Face Book: https://www.facebook.com/psremeshchandra.trivandrum
Twitter: https://twitter.com/PSRemeshChandra
You Tube: http://www.youtube.com/user/bloombooks/videos
Blog: http://sahyadribooks-remesh.blogspot.com/
Site: https://sites.google.com/site/timeuponmywindowsill/
E-Mail: bloombookstvm@gmail.com

Post: P. S. Remesh Chandran, Editor, Sahyadri Books, Trivandrum, Padmalayam, Nanniyode, Pacha Post, Trivandrum- 695562, Kerala State, South India.

Tags:

Cedric Mount, The Never Never Nest, Installment Plan Scheme, Credit Basis, Great Depression 1929, Economic Recess, One Act Plays, Playwrights, Modern Drama, Mortgaging, First World War Literature,